Thursday, April 2, 2009

The feasibility of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as pesticide




ABSTRACT

This study aims to know if garlic (Allium sativum L.) is feasible in making pesticide. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a species in the onion family alliacease. The leaves, stems and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.

In making the pesticide, the methods used are concentrating all the ingredients in making the pesticide. First, allow 3 ounces of finely chopped garlic to soak in 2 teaspoons of mineral oil for 24 hours. Add 1 pint of water and 1⁄4 ounce of liquid dish soap. Stir well and strain into a glass jar for storage. Upon making the spray, combine 1-2 tablespoons of concentrate in 1 pint of water to make the spray. Results showed that the pesticide produced is yellowish brown.

In testing and evaluating the effectiveness of the pesticide from garlic, the product was applied on cockroaches and observes after 10 minutes. After observing, the cockroaches were found dead.

Therefore, garlic is feasible in making pesticide. This pesticide cannot harm humans and it is environment friendly.



CHAPTER 1


INTRODUCTION



Background of the Study


Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family alliacease. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, and chive. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. It has a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens considerably with cooking. Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. In cold climates, cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. Garlic is claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer. Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic.

A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest.A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, mollusks, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans for food, destroy property, spread or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance.


Statement of the Problem


This study tries to find out the feasibility of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as pesticide.


Specifically, this study tries to answer the following queries:



  • is it comparable to commercial ones?


  • is it feasible to be a good source of pesticide


  • is it harmful to human beings?

  • Hypotheses




    • The concentration from garlic is feasible to be a pesticide


    • The concentration from garlic is not feasible to be a pesticide

    Significance of the Study


    This study is significant to all people. This can help to stop spreading diseases from pests. This can also help to the farmers to control the pests that harm their plants. this study is also an environment friendly.


    Scope and Limitations


    This study is limited only to apply on cockroaches.


    Definition of terms


    · Pesticide- a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest
    · Garlic-used in making the pesticide
    · Mineral oil- by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline and other petroleum based products from crude oil
    · Soap-used in making the pesticide



    CHAPTER 2


    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE



    Pesticides are used to control organisms which are considered harmful. For example, they are used to kill mosquitoes that can transmit potentially deadly diseases like west nile virus, yellow fever, and malaria. They can also kill bees, wasps or ants that can cause allergic reactions. Pesticides can save farmers' money by preventing crop losses to insects and other pests. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticide)


    Garlic is widely used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. It is a fundamental component in many or most dishes of various regions. Garlic is easy to grow and can be grown year-round in mild climates. In cold climates, cloves can be planted in the ground about six weeks before the soil freezes and harvested in late spring. Garlic plants are not attacked by pests. They can suffer from pink root, a disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red. Garlic plants can be grown close together, leaving enough room for the bulbs to mature, and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth.Garlic is claimed to help prevent heart disease (including atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure) and cancer.Animal studies, and some early investigational studies in humans, have suggested possible cardiovascular benefits of garlic. A Czech study found that garlic supplementation reduced accumulation of cholesterol on the vascular walls of animals. Allium sativum yields allicin, a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound (phytoncide). In some cases, it can be used as a home remedy to help speed recovery from strep throat or other minor ailments because of its antibiotic properties. It also contains the sulfur containing compounds alliin, ajoene, diallylsulfide, dithiin, S-allylcysteine, and enzymes, vitamin B, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, and maillard reaction products, which are non-sulfur containing compounds. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic)




    CHAPTER 3


    METHODOLOGY



    Materials




    • 100 grms of finely chopped or crushed garlic


    • 2 tablespoon of mineral oil


    • 30 grms of soap


    • water


    • graduated cylinder


    Procedure




    • Mix the 100 grms of finely chopped or crushed garlic and 2 tablespoon of mineral oil and allow to stand overnight.




    • Dissolve the soap in 500 ml of warm water and add the garlic-oil mix. The soap helps to make the spray to spread and stick to the foliage more effectively.




    • Sieve or filter the mixture and use it diluted in water at the rate of 15 ml/liter.




    • apply to the cockroaches


    CHAPTER 4


    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



    This chapter presents the results and discussions of the study. The data were presesnted in tables followed by discussions and analysis of the table.




    • in trial one, their are three replicates in my experimentation. In each replicate, the numbers of sprays is equal to 4. Their are 5 cockroaches to be experimented in each replicates. In the first replicate, 4 cockroaches died using the garlic pesticide while 3 cockroaches died in using the commercial pesticide. In thesecond replicate, 3 cockroaches died in garlic pesticide while 4 cockroaches died in commercial. In the third replicate, 3 cockroaches died in garlic pesticide and in commercial pesticide.

    • In trial two, there are also 3 replicates in myexperimentation. There were 4sprays applied in each replicate. In the first replicate, 3 cockroaches diedusing garlic pesticide and in commercial pesticide. In the second replicate, 4 cockroaches died using the garlic and commercialpesticide. In the thirdreplicate, 4 cockroaches died in using the garlic pesticide and the commercial pesticide.

    • In trial 3, there are also 3 replicates and4 sprays applied in each replicate. Inthefirst replicate, 3 cockroaches died in garlic pesticide and 4 cockroaches died in commercial pesticide. In trial 2, 3 cockroaches died in garlic pesticide and 4 cockroaches died in commercial pesticide. In trial 3, 4cockroachesdiedin garlicpesticide while 3 cockroaches died incommercial pesticide.



    CHAPTER 5


    Conclusion and Recommendation



    Nowadays, people are suffering from diseases that acquired from the pests like cockroaches that lives in our home. The researcher is aiming to find an alternative way in eliminating these kind of insect in an effective, safe and affordable wherein consumers can afford to produce their own homemade pesticide.


    Based upon my experimentation, the researcher can conclude that garlicpesticide is effective enough in killing cockroaches and its quality is the same in commercial pesticides. to be able this study be more effective, further investigations should be done in this study.



    BIBLIOGRAPHY


    websites


    http://www.ehow.com/how_2043716_make-homemade-pesticide.html


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticide



    Books


    Greene, Stanley A.; Pohanish, Richard P. (editors) (2005). Sittig's Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals. SciTech Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-8155-1516-2.


    McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. pp 310–313: The Onion Family: Onions, Garlic, Leeks.



    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



    The researcher wishes to extend her gratitude to the following persons for their assistance needed in the completion of this study:


    Ms. Balve Granido, the project adviser, for her concern, guidance, ideas, and support, for without her assistance and perseverance this research project would have not been realized.


    Mrs. Marilyn Sadlucap and Mr.Ramil Sadlucap, my parents, for the availability of the computer and Internet in making my write-ups.The parents of the researcher for their inspiration, as well as financial and moral support.


    My classmates and friends, for their love, advise, and support.


    Above all, to our almighty God who gives knowledge, wisdom and strength to overcome the trials during the conduct of the study.






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